Studying Law at RomaTre

Academic Year 2020-2021

Fall Semester (October 1 - December 18, 2020)

Course

Legal Protection of Cultural Heritage 2020

Prof. Aggr. Stefania Gialdroni



7 CFUs - ECTS, Monday: 8:00-10:00; Tuesday: 14:00-16:00; Wednesday: 8:00-10:00
[Days and hours to be confirmed. The lessons could take place online on the Teams platform]

Office hours: Wednesday 12:30-14:00, Room Number: 1A, Via Ostiense 139, 1st floor (Edificio Tommaseo). In case of limited access to the University buildings due to the COVID-19 emergency, the professor will be available online (via Skype or Teams). Please write an email to make an appointment.


Course description:  
What is cultural heritage and why is it important? When, where and how cultural heritage started to be protected? Which are the legal tools at our disposal to protect cultural heritage? Is cultural heritage a human rights issue? This course aims at providing answers to these questions and hand of international treatises, national laws and case study. In order to introduce the students to the complexity of the topic, a historical overview (with focus on Italy) will be provided to understand how the legal concept of cultural heritage developed at a national, European and global level.

Course Learning Objectives
  • To provide students with the knowledge of the historical development of the legal concept of cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, at a national and international level.
  • To provide students with the knowledge of the most important contemporary legal issues related to the legal protection of cultural heritage (e.g. CH and armed conflicts).
  • At the end of this course, students should be proficient in the following subject areas and skills:
    • critically analyzing the primary legal sources related to the protection of cultural heritage;
    • identifying the different fields of law involved in the protection of cultural heritage;
    • combining theoretical debates and case study;
    • developing presentation and research skills in the area of cultural heritage law.
Course Learning Activities
To achieve the above objectives, students will have to:
1) take a midterm exam consisting in a list of open and/or closed-ended questions; in case the course will be taught online, the midterm will be oral.
2) take part to a teamwork. Each team will be asked to submit a paper and to present the results of the research in front of the class by means of a power point presentation. In case native English speakers will be part of the class, one group will be in charge of translating an Italian documentary on artworks looted during WWII and writing the subtitles in English.
3) attend all lectures and be able to report on guest lectures;
4) engage in class discussions/debates.


Assessment tools
The course will be assessed on the following basis:
1) Written midterm exam (list of open-ended questions on the first part of the course): 30%. In case the course will take place online, the midterm exam will be oral.
2) Teamwork (see details below): 30%
3) Oral presentation of the research essay (with power point presentation): 30%
4) Final oral examination: 10% of the final grade. The oral exam will consist of a discussion of the research essay.

Teamwork
Students will be divided into groups. Each group will be in charge of a “field research” on one of the monuments/museums/archaeological parks of Rome. In fact, being in Rome, we have the unique opportunity to use the Eternal City as a kind of “manual of CH”. The students will have to visit the site, take pictures and report on “protection and promotion”, the two keywords of art. 9 of the Italian Constitution. They will then have to write a paper (max 3500 words) and present the results in front of the class. Each group will have to explain "who did what" throughout the research. The groups will have to answer questions like the following ones: Is it a UNESCO site? How many visitors each year? Are there free entrances? Has it been recently restored? Who manages the guided tours and the tickets? How are the directors chosen?
In case native English speakers will be part of the class, one group will be in charge of translating an Italian documentary on artworks looted during WWII and writing the subtitles in English.

Attendance policy
Students are expected to prepare for, attend and participate in all classes.

Course textbook(s)
The specific readings requested for this course, tough, are the following (the ones which are not available online will be provided on the e-learning platform):
 
  1. Chechi, A., Protecting Holy Heritage in Italy - A Critical Assessment through the Prism of International Law, in “International Journal of Cultural Property”, 21 (2014), pp. 397-421. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/851F794A8C98DC85712005573F4CD034/S0940739114000253a.pdf/protecting_holy_heritage_in_italya_critical_assessment_through_the_prism_of_international_law.pdf.
 
  1. Coccolo, F., Law No. 1089 of 1 June 1939. The origin and consequences of Italian legislation on the protection of the national cultural heritage in the 20th century, in S. Pinton and L. Zagado (eds.), “Cultural Heritage. Scenarios 2015-2017”, Venezia: ed. Ca' Foscari, 2017, pp. 195-209. Available at: https://edizionicafoscari.unive.it/it/edizioni/libri/978-88-6969-225-3/.
 
  1. Foradori, P., Protecting cultural heritage during armed conflict: the Italian contribution to “cultural peacekeeping”, in “Modern Italy”, 22.1 (2017), pp. 1-17.  Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/B730B0DE5419CFC463853B52463C64D1/S1353294416000570a.pdf/protecting_cultural_heritage_during_armed_conflict_the_italian_contribution_to_cultural_peacekeeping.pdf.
 
  1. Lostal, M., International Cultural Heritage Law in Armed Conflict. Case-studies of Syria, Libya, Mali, the Invasion of Iraq, and the Buddhas of Bamiyan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, pp. 18-46.
 
  1. Macmillan, F., Contemporary Intangible Cultural Heritage: Between Community and Market, in C. Cummings, H. Enright, M. Pavis and C. Waelde (eds.), “Research Handbook on Contemporary Intangible Cultural Heritage: Law and Heritage”, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2018. 
 
  1. Macmillan, F., Heritage, Imperialism and Commodification: How the West can always do it best, in “Europa Ethnica”, 74.3/4 (2017).
 
  1. Odello, M., The Right to Take Part to Cultural Life: General Comment No. 21 of the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in “Anuario español de derecho internacional”, 27 (2011), pp. 491-519. Available at: https://www.unav.edu/publicaciones/revistas/index.php/anuario-esp-dcho-internacional/article/viewFile/2563/2436.
 
  1. Pinton, S., The Faro Convention, the Legal European Environment and the Challenge of Commons in Cultural Heritage, in S. Pinton and L. Zagado (eds.), “Cultural Heritage. Scenarios 2015-2017”, Venezia: ed. Ca' Foscari, 2017, pp. 315-334. Available at: https://edizionicafoscari.unive.it/it/edizioni/libri/978-88-6969-225-3/.
 
  1. Ridley, R.T., To Protect the Monuments: the Papal Antiquarian (1534-1870), in “Xenia Antiqua”, I (1992), pp. 117-154 (in particular pp. 117-119 and 146 ff.).
 
  1. Settis, S., We the Citizens, English translation of chapter 7 of Paesaggio, Costituzione, cemento: la battaglia per l'ambiente contro il degrado civile (Einaudi, 2010), in “California Italian Studies”, 2.1 (2011). Available at: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7c90g6dp.
 
  1. Sterio, M., Individual Criminal Responsibility for the Destruction of Religious and Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, in “Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law”, 49.1 (2017), pp. 63-73. Available at: https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2500&context=jil.
 
  1. Yeide, N.H. and Teter-Schneider, P.A., S. Lane Faison, Jr. and "Art under the Shadowof the Swastika”, in “Archives of American Art Journal”, 47.3/4 (2008), pp. 24-37.


Supporting / Recommended course reading material
 
  1. Brown, G. (ed.), The Long and Influential Life of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the 21st Century. A Living Document in a Changing World”, Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2016, pp. 29-38. Available at: https://www.openbookpublishers.com/product/467/the-universal-declaration-of-human-rights-in-the-21st-century.
 
  1. Kunzelman, C.J., Some Trials, Tribulations, and Successes of the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Teams in the European Theatre During WWII, in “Military Affairs", 52.2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 56-60.
 
  1. Kurtz, M.J., The Allied Struggle over Cultural Restitution, 1942-1947, in “International Journal of Cultural Property”, 17 (2010), pp. 177-194. 
 
  1. Macmillan, F., Cultural Property and Community Rights to Cultural Heritage, in Ting Xu and Jean Allain (eds.), “Property and Human Rights in a Global Context”, Oxford: Hart, 2015, pp. 41-62. 
 
  1. Montanari, T., Costituzione italiana: art. 9, Roma: Carocci, 2018.
 
  1. Montanari, T., Privati del patrimonio, Torino: Einaudi, 2015.
 
  1. Settis, S., Paesaggio, Costituzione, cemento: la battaglia per l'ambiente contro il degrado civile, Torino: Einaudi, 2010.
 
  1. Silverman, H. (ed.), Contested cultural heritage: religion, nationalism, erasure and exclusion in a global world, New York and London: Springer, 2011. Available at: https://archive.org/stream/HelaineSilvermanAuth.HelaineSilvermanEds.ContestedCulturalHeritageReligionNation/Helaine%20Silverman%20auth.%2C%20Helaine%20Silverman%20eds.%20Contested%20Cultural%20Heritage%20Religion%2C%20Nationalism%2C%20Erasure%2C%20and%20Exclusion%20in%20a%20Global%20World_djvu.txt.  


Course Schedule
All topics and speakers indicated for specific dates are subject to change due to circumstances that may vary, and which are beyond the control of the Professor.
 
Class    Topic and/or Activity Readings
1. Mon., 5 Oct. Introduction: presentation of the course and general overview Settis, We the Citizens
2. Tue. 6 Oct. What is cultural heritage (CH)? Definitions of tangible and intangible CH Macmillan, Contemporary
3. Wed. 7 Oct.   Historical introduction: CH as a tool to build national identity Settis, We the Citizens
4. Mon. 12 Oct. CH in the Papal States Ridley
5. Tue. 13 Oct. Guest speaker : Prof. Elisabetta Fiocchi Malaspina (Univ. of Zurich). Natural law, international law and CH in 18th cent. Europe Dates and title to be confimed
6. Wed. 14 Oct. Guest speaker : Prof. Elisabetta Fiocchi Malaspina (Univ. of Zurich). Natural law, international law and CH in 18th cent. Europe Dates and title to be confimed
7. Mon. 19 Oct. CH before and after the Unification of Italy Ridley
8. Tue. 20 Oct.  CH under Fascism Coccolo
9. Wed. 21 Oct. CH during WWII : the Nazi-looted artworks. Projection of the movie. Movie: Monuments Men, dir. by G. Clooney, 2014.
10. Mon. 26 Oct. CH and WWII: The Real Monuments Men (art looting) Yeide and Teter-Schneider
11. Tue. 27 Oct. Italian Constitution and CH Settis, We the Citizens
12. Wed. 28 Oct. The protection of CH before WWII outside Italy: an overview  
13. Mon. 2 Nov. The World after WWII and the origin of cultural rights: UDHR, ICCPR, ICESCR Odello
14. Tue. 3 Nov. Council of Europe and CH Pinton, Faro Con.
15. Wed. 4 Nov. Sum up of the first part of the course  
16. Mon. 9 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD (Univ. of Essex) on “Protection of cultural heritage in armed conflict” Dates to be confirmed
17. Tue. 10 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD on “Cultural property at the ICC: the Al Mahdi case with a focus on reparations” Dates to be confirmed
18. Wed. 11 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD on “ISIS and the illicit trafficking of cultural property” Dates to be confirmed
19. Mon. 16 Nov. Midterm Exam Written in class or oral online
20. Tue. 17 Nov. Stealing CH: from the 1970 UNESCO   Convention to the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention Macmillan, Heritage
21. Wed. 18 Nov. Guest speaker on copyright and CH To be confirmed
22. Mon. 23 Nov. UNESCO projects on CH + Cultural peacekeeping Foradori
23 Tue. 24 Nov. Guest speaker on UNESCO sites and armed conflicts To be confirmed
24. Wed. 25 Nov. Back to Italy: Cultural Heritage of Religious Interest (Holy Heritage) + Codice dei Beni culturali e del paesaggio (2004) – Italian Code of CH
Submission of the research paper via email
Chechi
25. Mon. 30 Nov. Case study: The battle for the expropriation of the hexagonal basin of Portus (Harbour of Trajan)  
26. Tue. 1 Dec. Case study: The battle for the expropriation of the hexagonal basin of Portus (Harbour of Trajan)  
27. Wed. 2 Dec. Students presentations  
  No class on December 8th (Italian public holiday: Immacolata) and the day before  
28. Wed.. 9 Dec. Students presentations  
To Be Announced FINAL EXAM  

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