Studying Law at Roma Tre

Academic Year 2019-2020

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Fall Semester (October 1 - December 20, 2019)


Legal Protection of Cultural Heritage 2019

Prof. Stefania Gialdroni
Fall, 2019

7 CFUs - ECTS, Monday: 8:30-10:00; Tuesday: 14:15-16:00; Wednesday: 8:30-10:00

Office hours: Wednesday 12:30-14:00, Room Number: 1A, Via Ostiense 139, 1st floor (Edificio Tommaseo)

Course description:  
What is cultural heritage and why is it important? When, where and how cultural heritage started to be protected? Which are the legal tools at our disposal to protect cultural heritage? Is cultural heritage a human rights issue? This course aims at providing answers to these questions and hand of international treatises, national laws and case study. In order to introduce the students to the complexity of the topic, a historical overview (with focus on Italy) will be provided to understand how the legal concept of cultural heritage developed at a national, European and global level.

Course Learning Objectives
  • To provide students with the knowledge of the historical development of the legal concept of cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, at a national and international level.
  • To provide students with the knowledge of the most important contemporary legal issues related to the legal protection of cultural heritage.
  • At the end of this course, students should be proficient in the following subject areas and skills:
    • critically analyzing the primary legal sources related to the protection of cultural heritage;
    • identifying the different fields of law involved in the protection of cultural heritage;
    • combining theoretical debates and case study;
    • developing presentation and research skills in the area of cultural heritage law.

Course Learning Activities
To achieve the above objectives, students will have to:
  • take a midterm exam consisting in a list of open-ended questions;
  • write a research paper at the end of the course and make a presentation in front of the class based on their research paper; the presentation can consist in a power point or in a video;
  • attend and report on guest lectures;
  • engage in class discussions/debates.

Assessment tools
The course will be assessed on the following basis:
  • Written midterm exam (list of open-ended questions): 30%
  • 2000 (min.) – 3000 (max.) words research essay (including footnotes): 30%
  • Oral presentation of the research essay: 20%
  • Final oral examination: 20% of the final grade.

Attendance policy
Students are expected to prepare for, attend and participate in all classes.

Course textbook(s)
For a general overview see:
Pinton, S. and Zagado, L. (eds.), “Cultural Heritage. Scenarios 2015-2017”, Venezia: ed. Ca' Foscari, 2017. Available online at:

The specific readings requested for this course, tough, are the following (the ones which are not available online will be provided on the e-learning platform):
  1. Chechi, A., Protecting Holy Heritage in Italy - A Critical Assessment through the Prism of International Law, in “International Journal of Cultural Property”, 21 (2014), pp. 397-421. Available at:
  1. Coccolo, F., Law No. 1089 of 1 June 1939. The origin and consequences of Italian legislation on the protection of the national cultural heritage in the 20th century, in S. Pinton and L. Zagado (eds.), “Cultural Heritage. Scenarios 2015-2017”, Venezia: ed. Ca' Foscari, 2017, pp. 195-209. Available at:
  1. Foradori, P., Protecting cultural heritage during armed conflict: the Italian contribution to “cultural peacekeeping”, in “Modern Italy”, 22.1 (2017), pp. 1-17.  Available at:
  1. Lostal, M., International Cultural Heritage Law in Armed Conflict. Case-studies of Syria, Libya, Mali, the Invasion of Iraq, and the Buddhas of Bamiyan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, pp. 18-46.
  1. Macmillan, F., Contemporary Intangible Cultural Heritage: Between Community and Market, in C. Cummings, H. Enright, M. Pavis and C. Waelde (eds.), “Research Handbook on Contemporary Intangible Cultural Heritage: Law and Heritage”, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2018. 
  1. Macmillan, F., Heritage, Imperialism and Commodification: How the West can always do it best, in “Europa Ethnica”, 74.3/4 (2017).
  1. Odello, M., The Right to Take Part to Cultural Life: General Comment No. 21 of the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in “Anuario español de derecho internacional”, 27 (2011), pp. 491-519. Available at:
  1. Pinton, S., The Faro Convention, the Legal European Environment and the Challenge of Commons in Cultural Heritage, in S. Pinton and L. Zagado (eds.), “Cultural Heritage. Scenarios 2015-2017”, Venezia: ed. Ca' Foscari, 2017, pp. 315-334. Available at:
  1. Ridley, R.T., To Protect the Monuments: the Papal Antiquarian (1534-1870), in “Xenia Antiqua”, I (1992), pp. 117-154 (in particular pp. 117-119 and 146 ff.).
  1. Settis, S., We the Citizens, English translation of chapter 7 of Paesaggio, Costituzione, cemento: la battaglia per l'ambiente contro il degrado civile (Einaudi, 2010), in “California Italian Studies”, 2.1 (2011). Available at:
  1. Sterio, M., Individual Criminal Responsibility for the Destruction of Religious and Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, in “Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law”, 49.1 (2017), pp. 63-73. Available at:
  1. Yeide, N.H. and Teter-Schneider, P.A., S. Lane Faison, Jr. and "Art under the Shadowof the Swastika”, in “Archives of American Art Journal”, 47.3/4 (2008), pp. 24-37.

Supporting / Recommended course reading material
  1. Brown, G. (ed.), The Long and Influential Life of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the 21st Century. A Living Document in a Changing World”, Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2016, pp. 29-38. Available at:
  1. Kunzelman, C.J., Some Trials, Tribulations, and Successes of the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Teams in the European Theatre During WWII, in “Military Affairs", 52.2 (Apr., 1988), pp. 56-60.
  1. Kurtz, M.J., The Allied Struggle over Cultural Restitution, 1942-1947, in “International Journal of Cultural Property”, 17 (2010), pp. 177-194. 
  1. Macmillan, F., Cultural Property and Community Rights to Cultural Heritage, in Ting Xu and Jean Allain (eds.), “Property and Human Rights in a Global Context”, Oxford: Hart, 2015, pp. 41-62. 
  1. Montanari, T., Costituzione italiana: art. 9, Roma: Carocci, 2018.
  1. Montanari, T., Privati del patrimonio, Torino: Einaudi, 2015.
  1. Settis, S., Paesaggio, Costituzione, cemento: la battaglia per l'ambiente contro il degrado civile, Torino: Einaudi, 2010.
  1. Silverman, H. (ed.), Contested cultural heritage: religion, nationalism, erasure and exclusion in a global world, New York and London: Springer, 2011. Available at:  

Course Schedule
Class    Topic and/or Activity Readings
1. Mon., 7 Oct. Introduction: presentation of the course and general overview Settis, We the Citizens
2. Tue. 8 Oct. What is cultural heritage (CH)? Definitions of tangible and intangible CH Macmillan, Contemporary
3. Wed. 9 Oct.   Historical introduction: CH as a tool to build national identity Settis, We the Citizens
4. Mon. 14 Oct. CH in the Papal States Ridley
5. Tue. 15 Oct. CH before and after the Unification of Italy Ridley
6. Wed. 16 Oct.  CH under Fascism Coccolo
7. Mon. 21 Oct. CH during WWII : the Nazi-looted artworks. Projection of the movie. Movie: Monuments Men, dir. by G. Clooney, 2014.
8. Tue. 22 Oct. CH and WWII: The Real Monuments Men (art looting) Yeide and Teter-Schneider
9. Wed. 23 Oct. Italian Constitution and CH Settis, We the Citizens
10. Mon. 28 Oct. The protection of CH before WWII outside Italy: an overview  
11. Tue. 29 Oct. The World after WWII and the origin of cultural rights: UDHR, ICCPR, ICESCR Odello
12. Wed. 30 Oct. Council of Europe and CH Pinton, Faro Con.
13. Mon. 4 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD on “Protection of cultural heritage in armed conflict” Lostal
14. Tue. 5 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD on “Cultural property at the ICC: the Al Mahdi case with a focus on reparations” Sterio
15. Wed. 6 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Marina Lostal Becerril PhD on “ISIS and the illicit trafficking of cultural property”  
16. Mon. 11 Nov. Written Midterm Exam  
17. Tue. 12 Nov. Stealing CH part I: the 1970 UNESCO   Convention Macmillan, Heritage
18. Wed. 13 Nov.

Guest speaker: member of the CTP (Carabinieri: Reparto operative tutela patrimonio culturale)

19. Mon. 18 Nov. Stealing CH part II : the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention  
20. Tue. 19 Nov. UNESCO projects on CH  
21. Wed. 20 Nov. Cultural peacekeeping Foradori
22. Mon. 25 Nov. Back to Italy: Cultural Heritage of Religious Interest (Holy Heritage) part I
Submission of the research paper via email
23. Tue. 26 Nov. Cultural Heritage of Religious Interest (Holy Heritage) part II Chechi
24. Wed. 27 Nov. Guest speaker: Dr. Eugenio Carucci on “Cultural Heritage and EU law”  
25. Mon. 2 Dec. Codice dei Beni culturali e del paesaggio (2004) – Italian Code of CH  
26. Tue. 3 Dec. Case study  
27. Wed. 4 Dec. Sum up of the second part of the course  
28. Mon. 5 Dec. Student presentations  
29. Tue. 6 Dec. Student presentations  
30. Wed. 7 Dec. Student presentations  
To Be Announced FINAL EXAM  



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